In the field of production management, various words are flying. Therefore, the difference in strict meaning may become ambiguous. For example, there may be many people who do not know the difference between “production management” and “process control” that they often hear. Recently, the term “manufacturing management” has also come to be heard. This article explains the differences between these words and other common words in the production management field.
What are production control and process control?
Production management is the management of production (design, procurement, work) from the viewpoint of QCD (Quality: Quality, Cost, Delivery). Alternatively, it can be said that the production activity is adjusted from the viewpoint of QCD so that it is efficient and effective.
On the other hand, process control refers to the management of production management, especially the manufacturing process. In other words, as part of production management, it is to manage the manufacturing process from the perspective of QCD.
A concept very similar to process control is the term “manufacturing management.” It is a word that has recently been used, but conceptually it is almost the same as “process control”. However, while process control is used in a classical context, “manufacturing management” is often used in a modern context, such as a manufacturing management system. In addition, while “process management” imagines manual management, in the case of “manufacturing management”, it is often imagined to be managed using IT equipment.
The basic definition of production management terms is described in JIS Z8141 (Japanese Industrial Standard). If you are interested, please refer to it.
Management index for production control and process control for production control and process control
Production control and process control are based on several indicators. Productivity is the most important thing. The definition of productivity is output divided by input. Specifically, the output corresponds to production volume, production value, added value, etc., and input amounts correspond to labor volume, input capital, and raw materials. For example, the amount of production divided by labor is labor productivity.
In addition, the themes of production include P (productivity), Q (quality), C (cost), D (delivery date), S (safety), M (motivation: morality) , E (environmental) is available. In other words, production systems need to meet these diverse demands, not just productivity and efficiency. Production control and process control are essential activities to achieve these indicators at the highest possible level of balance.
When it comes to production control and process control, you may only imagine the management of things. However, production control and process control coordinate the entire production by controlling and appropriately distributing the resources necessary for production activities. In particular, it is very important to manage “people” involved in production activities.
The basic principles of streamlining production. It takes the initial simplification, standardization, and specialization and is called 3S.
- Simplification means simplifying production by reducing the types of products and jobs. This can increase production efficiency.
- “Standardization” is not just about reducing the number of types, but also unifying types and methods to determine standards. Examples include work standards and design standards. Standardization is divided into standardization of things such as parts, machines, and materials, and standardization of methods such as work. This makes the task easier and lowers costs.
- “Specialization” refers to the limitation of the models and varieties to be manufactured, and the division of work and the full-time work. For example, focusing on the technology you are good at or focusing on manufacturing and selling only specific product groups. As a result, we can demonstrate our superiority and uniqueness as a specialized company.
It is a principle that is a prerequisite for management in the workplace and is mainly a guideline for the actions of people in the field. It is called 5S by taking the initials of “organize”, “tidy”, “cleaning”, “clean”, and “discipline”. It is said that this 5S can be realized at a high level in highly productive sites.
- “Organizing” is the distinction between what you need and the unnecessary and putting away (throwing away) the unnecessary.
- “Tidy” means having what you need ready to go, when you need it, in a fixed place. This will help you see at a glance what you need.
- “Cleaning” is the removal and cleaning of foreign matter adhering to what is needed.
- “Cleanliness” means that the above work is repeated and that it remains clean.
- Discipline means always following what is decided.
ECRS Original Rules
ECRS with the initials “Eliminate”, “Combine”, “Rearrange”, and “Simplify” is called the principle of improvement.
- “Exclusion” means thinking about whether it can be lost. For example, even if there is an instruction for curved surface processing in a drawing, if there is no meaning for curved surface processing, it is eliminated. This includes reducing the number of bolts within the range of strength allowed.
- “Join” means thinking, “Can’t we do it together?” For example, this is to make a machine tool from a single-purpose machine to a multi-purpose machine.
- “Exchange” means thinking, “Can I change the order?” For example, consider whether you can change the assembly process.
- “Simplification” means thinking about “can it be simplified?” For example, this is the case to eliminate unnecessary parts. For example, mirrorless SLR cameras do not have Penta prisms, quick return mirrors, or mechanical shutters that were always found in old SLR cameras, and have been replaced by electronic shutters and electronic viewfinders.
What (what), When, Who, Where, Why, and How used to perform improvement activities (How do you) ask questions.
Other terms that you might find are useful:
- “Added value” is the value of newly granted products and services as a result of one’s corporate activities.
- Lead time: The time between placing an order and delivering, or the time between the preparation of the material and the time it takes for the finished product. In particular, in the case of “production lead time”, this means the period from the start of production to the completion time. Often in the field, there is a case where “the delivery date of this part is long reed”, but this “reed” is lead time.
- “Utilization rate” is the ratio of working hours in a person or machine to effective working hours to available hours.
- Effort: A measure of the overall amount of work that takes a single worker to perform a task.
- “Load” is the amount of work imposed on a person or machine or equipment. Expressed in units such as time, weight, and effort.
- “Yield” and “Yield”: The ratio of the amount of the main raw material input to the number of goods actually produced. In mechanical and electronic products, yield is often the case, and in chemical products and pharmaceuticals, yields are common. “Yield” takes into account products that have been reworked during the production process. Therefore, the “direct line rate” described below is used to accurately determine the performance of the production line
- Direct line rate: The ratio of products shipped that have been completed without any rework in the production process. The performance of the production line is accurately reflected.
Correct terminology leads to an understanding of production and process control
I have explained the basic concepts used in production control and process control. There are a lot of similar words in this area. In addition, there are many words that are generally not familiar, and they can be confusing. However, if you do not properly understand the concepts of these words, it may eventually cause misunderstanding. Understanding the terminology correctly leads to better practice of production and process control.